Tropical countries Climate
Indonesian climate and other tropical countries are hot and humid those are favorable conditions and strongly contribute to fungal growth and the production of mycotoxin. Other factors such as corn or peanut kernel moisture, insect damage, poor fertilization, and drought, are also stimulate fungal growth and the production of mycotoxins.
Aflatoxin and Fumonisin effect on health
Aflatoxin and Fumonisin are mycotoxins of most concerned. The major types of aflatoxins are B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1, with aflatoxin B1 being the most toxic, and usually predominant. Aflatoxin B1 is a very potent carcinogen to humans and animals that positively associated with liver cell cancer.
Fumonisins have been considered as the responsible agents in a variety of animal diseases and are epidemiologically linked to the high incidence of human esophageal cancer in some regions in the world. Fumonisins are considered to be responsible for two distinct diseases in animals, namely equine leucoencephalomalacia (ELEM) in horses and porcine pulmonary edema (PPE) in swine.
Effect on Economic
Corn, corn products, peanuts and peanut products are the most prone food and food crops to be contaminated by aflatoxin. In fact, the most of rejected local peanut and corn by the industries in Indonesia are because of the occurrence of aflatoxins. The National biggest peanut-based industry in Indonesia processes around 100 tons of peanut on daily basis, with 80% of it comes from imported raw material. Safety consideration refuses the locally produced nut to enter the production line of the factory so as not to jeopardize the company viability. International trade regulate maximum limits for aflatoxin is less than 10 ppb, resulted in lowering local market share of Indonesian peanuts and corn.
Effect on Global Market
In the last four years Indonesian estate crop products have experiencing in increasing pressure in the local and global market which demanded more stringent quality, food safety, and environmental issues. One result of the ongoing discussion regarding to the crop products is the occurrence of mycotoxigenic fungi. Recent regulation implemented by importing countries or international standards are becoming more restrictive. For example the maximum limits for mycotoxins contamination are in the range of less than 10 ppb. Under the current post harvest handling practices, this very low limit could mean larger proportion of Indonesian agricultural products will not conform to the global standards. Therefore Indonesian peanut and corn product have low international market share.