Mycotoxin

A mycotoxin (from Greek μύκης (mykes, mukos) “fungus” and Latin (toxicum) “poison”) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by an organism of the fungus kingdom, including mushrooms, molds, and yeasts.[1][2] The term ‘mycotoxin’ is usually reserved for the toxic chemical products produced by fungi that readily colonize crops.[1] Most fungi are aerobic (use oxygen) and are found almost everywhere in extremely small quantities due to the minute size of their spores. They consume organic matter wherever humidity and temperature are sufficient. One mold species may produce many different mycotoxins and/or the same mycotoxin as another species.[3]

Where conditions are right, fungi proliferate into colonies and mycotoxin levels become high. The reason for the production of mycotoxins is not yet known; they are neither necessary for growth nor the development of the fungi.[4] Because mycotoxins weaken the receiving host, the fungus may use them as a strategy to better the environment for further fungal proliferation. The production of toxins depends on the surrounding intrinsic and extrinsic environments and the toxins vary greatly in their severity, depending on the organism infected and its susceptibility, metabolism, and defense mechanisms.[5] Some of the health effects found in animals and humans include death, identifiable diseases or health problems, weakened immune systems without specificity to a toxin, and as allergens or irritants. Some mycotoxins are harmful to other micro-organisms such as other fungi or even bacteria; penicillin is one example.[6]

Mycotoxins can appear in the food chain as a result of fungal infection of crops, either by being eaten directly by humans, or by being used as livestock feed. Mycotoxins greatly resist decomposition or being broken down in digestion, so they remain in the food chain in meat and dairy products. Even temperature treatments, such as cooking and freezing, do not destroy mycotoxins.
Although various wild mushrooms contain an assortment of poisons that are definitely fungal metabolites causing noteworthy health problems for humans, they are rather arbitrarily excluded from discussions of mycotoxicology. In such cases the distinction is based on the size of the producing fungus and human intention.[7] Mycotoxin exposure is almost always accidental whereas with mushrooms improper identification and ingestion causing mushroom poisoning is commonly the case. Ingestion of misidentified mushrooms containing mycotoxins may result in hallucinations. The cyclopeptide-produced Amanita phalloide is well known for its toxic potential and is responsible for approximately 90% of all mushroom fatalities.[8] The other primary mycotoxin groups found in mushrooms include: orellanine, monomethylhydrazine, disulfiram-like, hallucinogenic indoles, muscarinic, isoxazole, and gastrointestinal (GI)-specific irritants.[9] The bulk of this article is about mycotoxins that are found in microfungi other than poisons from mushrooms or macroscopic fungi.[7]

Many international agencies are trying to achieve universal standardization of regulatory limits for mycotoxins. Currently, over 100 countries have regulations regarding mycotoxins in the feed industry, in which 13 mycotoxins or groups of mycotoxins are of concern.[10] The process of assessing a need for mycotoxin regulation includes a wide array of in-laboratory testing which includes extracting, clean-up and separation techniques.[11] Most official regulations and control methods are based on high-performance liquid techniques (HPLC) through international bodies.[11] It is implied that any regulations regarding these toxins will be in co-ordinance with any other countries with which a trade agreement exists. Many of the standards for the method performance analysis for mycotoxins is set by the European Committee for Standardization(CEN).[11] Although, one must take note that scientific risk assessment in commonly influenced by culture and politics which, in turn, will affect trade regulations of mycotoxins.[12]

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